Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Tramadol (Ultram, Tramadol)

Tramadol hydrochloride (Ultram, Tramal ) is a centrally appearing opioid analgesic, utilized in treating reasonable to severe pain. The drug has a variety of applications, including remedy for stressed leg syndrome, acid reflux, and fibromyalgia. It was developed by the pharmaceutical firm Grünenthal GmbH within the late 1970s.

Tramadol possesses weak agonist actions at the μ-opioid receptor, releases serotonin, and inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine.

Tramadol is a synthetic analog of the phenanthrene alkaloid codeine and, as such, is an opioid and likewise a prodrug (codeine is metabolized to morphine, tramadol is transformed to O-desmethyltramadol). Opioids are chemical compounds which act upon one or more of the human opiate receptors. The euphoria and respiratory melancholy are mainly brought on by the μ1 and μ2 receptors; the addictive nature of the drug is due to these effects in addition to its serotonergic/noradrenergic effects. The opioid agonistic impact of tramadol and its major metabolite(s) are nearly exclusively mediated by the substance's motion at the μ-opioid receptor. This attribute distinguishes tramadol from many different substances (together with morphine) of the opioid drug class, which typically don't possess tramadol's degree of subtype selectivity.

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